AUTHOR: Ajmer Singh Grewal
1Jan Nayak Ch. Devi Lal Memorial College of Pharmacy, Sirsa, 125055, Haryana, India
2Shivalik College of Pharmacy, Nangal, 140126, Punjab, India
Pesticides are widely used in agriculture mainly to increase crop yields to cater huge supply of food products for increasing world population as well as to protect crops from pests and control insect-borne diseases. Increased use of pesticides results in contamination of the environment and the excess accumulation of pesticide residues in food products, which has always been a matter of serious concern. Pesticide residues in food and crops aredirectly related to the irrational application of pesticides to the growing crops. Accumulated pesticide residues in food products have been associated with a broad variety of human health hazards, ranging from short-term effects to longterm toxic effects. The preventive measures for pesticide residues in the developing countries are limited due to a shortage of funds and lack of defined government regulations. The impact of pesticide residues can be minimized by taking certain measures such as the rational use of pesticides, promoting organic farming, exploit natural and bio pesticides, and proper implementation and amendment of pesticide-related laws. The present article has been planned to review various aspects of pesticide residues including their accumulation in food products, impact on human health, and the preventive measures to counter their toxic effects.
Ajmer Singh Grewal had written his views on Pesticide Residues in Food Grains, Vegetables and Fruits: A Hazard to Human Health
For more info visit this URL: https://www.ommegaonline.org/article-details/Pesticide-Residues-in-Food-Grains-Vegetables-and-Fruits-A-Hazard-to-Human-Health/1355
AUTHOR: Ajmer Singh Grewal
Phosphodiesterase 7 (PDE7), one of the members of PDE family has been reported as potential therapeutic target involved in inflammation. The present work was designed to synthesize and evaluate the anti-inflammatory activity of some newer substituted triazole derivatives as potential PDE7 inhibitors. A series of substituted triazole derivatives was synthesized and evaluated by in silico studies to determine the binding interactions for the best-fit conformations in the binding site of the PDE7 protein. The selected compounds from in silico studies were evaluated further for their anti-inflammatory activity in the animal models. Amongst the synthesized molecules, compound 3 showed higher anti-inflammatory activity. The in vivo results showed accordance to that of in silico results. Most of the synthesized molecules were found to have drug-like properties as devised by Lipinski’s rule of five. These molecules can act as the starting hits for the design of safe, effective and orally bioavailable PDE7 inhibitors for the treatment of various inflammatory disorders.
Author- Vinny Lather
Author:Virendra N Sehgal
Background:Dermato-Venereology (Skin/VD) Center, Sehgal Nursing Home, Panchwati, Delhi
For more infomation Please go through this URL:https://www.ommegaonline.org/article-details/Scrotal-Swellings-Scrotal-Anatomy-and-Physiology-part-I/535
ABSTRACT :The narrative of applied anatomy of scrotum, a protective reservoir for the testis and related anatomical constituent of reproduction are formed, emphasizing its nerve, blood supply and lymphatic draining system. Its salient physiological characteristics too are described. The role of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in evaluating applied anatomical status in, particular, is define. Scrotum, plural scrotums or scrota, adjective scro’tal, a bag of skin and muscle that contains the testicles in males. The scrotum has its origin (borrowing) from Latin scrÅ tum
Author:Reza B Jalili
Background:Department of Surgery, Division of Plastic Surgery, University of British Columbia
For more infomation Please go through this URL:https://www.ommegaonline.org/article-details/Application-of-Adipose-Derived-Stem-Cells-for-Treatment-of-Chronic-Wounds/611
Chronic wounds, such as pressure, venous, or diabetic ulcers, fail to progress through the orderly wound healing process. Due to limitations in current treatments, stem cell therapy has been considered as an alternative therapeutic approach to chronic wounds throughout the past decade. The use of adipose derived stem cells (ASCs) has been both a promising and practical treatment because of their relatively non-invasive extraction, high proliferation rate, and ability to differentiate into several mesodermal lineages. This mini-review provides a concise overview on the role of ASCs in wound healing and studies that have examined the application of ASCs in the treatment of chronic wounds.
Background:Department of Plastic Surgery, Vejle Hospital, Odense University Hospital, Denmark
For more infomation Please go through this URL:https://www.ommegaonline.org/article-details/Aggressive-iLentigo-Malignai-Successfully-Treated-with-Imiquimod-5-A-Case-Report/786
The use of the topical Imiquimod (IMQ) 5% cream as a non-surgical alternative to melanoma in situ (MIS) and Lentigo Maligna (LM) is still controversial. Several case reports on this subject are available, but no general consensus exists regarding the efficacy of IMQ for the treatment of MIS.
Here we present a case of a patient successfully treated with topical IMQ 5% for persistent and aggressive LM despite repetitive surgery. In conclusion, IMQ appears to be a safe alternative to surgery in treating MIS; however, more studies are needed to more precisely determine its role in this specific application.
Author:Leslie K. Dennis
Background:Department of Epidemiology, College of Public Health, University of Iowa, Iowa City, USA.
For more infomation Please go through this URL:https://www.ommegaonline.org/article-details/Sunless-Tanning-Product-Use-Among-Young-Adults-as-Related-to-their-Prevention-Behaviors-Regarding-Ultraviolet-Radiation/441
Introduction: Sunless tanning products are a safe alternative to ultraviolet radiation for individuals seeking tanned skin. If used to replace ultraviolet (UV) tanning, these products have the potential to decrease UV exposure and thus skin cancer. Sun protective behaviors were characterized in a population reporting high importance of tanned skin.
Methods: Young adults (N = 163) completed a self-administered questionnaire examining tanning attitudes, behaviors and beliefs along with lifetime use of tanning beds and sunless tanning products.
Results: Among students surveyed, 34% reported ever using sunless tanning products. Ever users were more likely to be female (OR = 7.5), have fair skin (OR = 1.4), have used tanning beds greater than 50 times (OR = 2.5), used a larger amount of sunscreen (1.9) and have reapplied sunscreen when outside on a sunny day (OR = 1.8). Ever users of sunless tanning products who stated they preferred them because they are safer were also more likely to use a larger amount of sunscreen (OR = 2.1), reapply sunscreen on a sunny day (OR = 2.8) and try to avoid midday sun on a sunny day (OR = 2.1). However, other sun protection behaviors including increased frequency of sunscreen use, sitting in the shade or wearing hat were not more likely to be adopted by these participants.
Conclusions: Prevention efforts should target females with frequent tanning exposure via both sunbathing and tanning bed use to increase their use of sunless tanning products in combination with sunscreen use and reapplication.
Author: Virendra N Sehgal
Background:Department of Dermatology and Venereology, All India Institute of Medical Sciences and Research, New Delhi, India.
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Acute scrotum, an unusual manifestation of non-gonococcal urethritis (NGU), epididymitis and orchitis, in a middle aged man is described with cardinal clinical features characterizing it as a syndrome. Investigations were corroborative to conform to non sexually transmitted disease. E. Coli, sensitive to levofloxacin, was recovered on culture, which showed an affirmative response to levofloxacin intravenous infusion, uriliser and urispas.Acute epididymo-orchitis perceived as a clinical syndrome is a set of medical symptoms and signs that are correlated with each other, and often with a specific disease, characterized by pain, swelling and inflammation of the epididymis, with/without inflammation of the testes. Local urethral extension is the most common route of infection, which may primarily be due to Gono-or non-gonococcal infection spreading from the urethra and /or from the bladder. Although orchitis, an infection limited only to the testis is infrequent, may be an associated feature. There seemed to have been a steady decline in the prevalence of the condition in the recent past. It is, therefore, considered, worthwhile to re-visit the entity to create an-awareness amongst the practitioners, about the condition the acute scrotum
International Journal of food and nutritional Science - Open Access (IJFNS) is devoted towards international standard peer reviewed Open Access research. IJFNS includes many classifications of nutrition and diet. This journal offers a platform for researchers, scientists and other professors to explore and share their knowledge of scientific advancements in vast variety of health, fitness nutrition and diet affecting their daily life, through a respected peer-reviewed publication. This helps in bringing awareness and the risk associated with major health issues
Author Name: shakuntala chhabra
Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Mahatma Gandhi Institute of Medical Sciences, Sewagram, Maharashtra, India
For more information Please go through this URL: https://www.ommegaonline.org/article-details/Severe-Maternal-Illness-Death-In-Low-Resource-Settings/1077
Globally maternal deaths and Maternal Mortality Ratio (MMR) have decreased from 543,000 and 400 in 1990 to 287,000 and 210 in 2010 respectively. Studies of severely ill obstetric cases reveal, case fatality highest in Africa 1:5. Figure for India is 1:11, but there are not many reports.
Present study was done by analysis of records of seriously ill obstetric cases managed over five years at a referral health facility with limited resources to know survival/death among severely ill cases during pregnancy, birth, post-birth.
Of all cases 10% women died. Case fatality was highest in women from low resource urban area (16%). In women who were severely ill due to acute fatty liver of pregnancy, case fatality was 100%. If women with hypertensive disorders during pregnancy developed placental abruption, coagulation disorder or intracerebral bleed or pulmonary edema, case fatality was 43%. And in cases of severe illnesses due to medical disorders with pregnancy, it was 37%. More research and better health care is essential to prevent severe illnesses which occur due to common problems during pregnancy and birth. Also better system for prevention and management of multiorgan failure is essential at referral in similar situations for prevention of fatality in severely ill women during pregnancy, labour and postpartum.
Author:David E. Fisher
Background:Cutaneous Biology Research Center, Massachusetts General Hospital, Charlestown, Massachusetts, USA
For more infomation Please go through this URL:https://www.ommegaonline.org/article-details/Melanoma-Immunotherapy-Mechanisms-and-Opportunities/594
Immune checkpoint blockade via inhibition of Cytotoxic T Lymphocyte Antigen 4 (CTLA-4) and Programmed Cell Death 1 Receptor (PD-1) has demonstrated significant clinical benefits in treating melanoma and other types of cancers and has since become a very progressive field in cancer research. Despite durable tumor regression observed in some patients, response rates to CTLA-4 and PD-1 still have room for improvement. There are many additional immune modulatory pathways, including inhibitory molecules expressed on tumor cells and secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines by lymphatic cells that could potentially be targeted to enhance the anti-tumor responses to PD-1 and CTLA-4. Here, we review the current status of CTLA-4 and PD-1 inhibitors in the treatment of melanoma and several therapeutic targets and strategies that may synergize with checkpoint blockades.
Author Name: Farzad Deyhim
Cardiovascular disease is attributed to sedentary lifestyle, diets high in fat and refined carbohydrates, and low in fruits and vegetables. The objective of this study was to determine whether drinking grapefruit juice positively influences cardiovascular risk markers, antioxidant status, and lipid peroxidation in adults not changing their eating habits. An experiment to test whether daily consumption of 20 fl. oz. of freshly squeezed grapefruit juice for two months affected lipid panels, C-reactive protein, insulin, body composition, blood pressure, antioxidant status, and malondialdehyde production was conducted. Fasting blood samples were collected pre-treatment and 60 days after drinking grapefruit juice post-treatment. Drinking grapefruit juice did not affect (P > 0.1) plasma total cholesterol, triglycerides, Apo A, Apo B, LDL, HDL, body fat percentage, BMI, blood pressure, plasma insulin, or C-reactive protein. Drinking grapefruit juice did not affect systolic and diastolic blood pressure. However, drinking grapefruit juice significantly (P < 0.05) increased total plasma antioxidant capacity and decreased (P < 0.05) plasma malondialdehyde concentration. Drinking grapefruit juice may be cardio-protective via increasing total antioxidant status and decreasing lipid peroxidation independent of any of the cardiovascular risk markers measured in the study.
Basics of Dermal Fillers praise
Author: Beomjoon Kim
Background: Department of Dermatology, Chung-Ang University College of Medicine, Seoul, South Korea
For more infomation Please go through this URL: https://www.ommegaonline.org/article-details/Basics-of-Dermal-Fillers/628
Currently, soft tissue augmentation with fillers is widely accepted as a treatment that can improve quality of life. Fillers are prepared from diverse materials including autologous implants, collagens, hyaluronic acid (HA), and biosynthetic polymers, and are marketed for cosmetic purposes. Among these fillers, HA fillers are the most popular because of their volumizing effect, biocompatibility, and easy correction after treatment.
Naturally occurring HA is a glycosaminoglycan uniformly present throughout all living species in connective tissue, vitreous humor, synovium, and the dermis. HA is a polysaccharide composed of the disaccharide units of D-glucuronic acid and N-acetyl-D-glucosamine with β(1→4) glycosidic linkages. HA is major component of connective tissues, especially the human dermis. However, natural HA is rapidly degraded by enzymes and radicals that are present in the body. The half life of HA in human tissues generally ranges from 1 to 2 days, therefore, treating defects such as wrinkles by injection of free HA into skin is effective for less than a week. Despite the excellent biocompatibility of HA, its time-dependent degradation is a serious drawback. To overcome the lack of persistence of free HA, HA-based dermal fillers are produced by chemical modification, namely cross linking. HA can be cross linked by using diverse cross-linking reagents such as 1,4-butanediol diglycidyl ether (BDDE), divinyl sulfone (DVS), or diazomethane.
Author: Nadia Mulinacci
Pomegranate peel (exocarp and mesocarp), which constitutes about 50% of the whole fresh fruit, is extensively used in folk medicine but discarded in large quantities as by-product, after the juice production. The objective was to valorize this by-product derived from Laffan and Wonderful varieties, by improving the knowledge on its composition and by applying sustainable extraction processes.
The extraction was performed separately on exocarp and mesocarp, using water at different temperatures, and 70% ethanol; the ellagitannins were determined by HPLC-DAD and MS- TOF. The polysaccharide fraction was extracted and determined by weight (yields). The profiles of mesocarp and exocarp separately of the two varieties were very similar and characterized by the same ellagitannins (ETs) of pomegranate juice. The highest ETs amount was obtained from mesocarp (140 - 150 mg/dried matter) via decoction and hydroalcoholic extraction. No ETs degradation was observed during decoction, α and β punicalagins were always 59 – 78 % of the total ETs. Decoction as a green process easy to apply can help to valorize these by-products as it is able to recover polysaccharides as well as ellagitannins. A Nutritional label was prepared for the whole dry decoction from Wonderful mesocarp.
Author: Maria Nardoia
The effect of 2% grape seed and 2% grape skin powder added to chicken thigh patties stored at 4°C was assessed by measuring lipid oxidation, total phenolic content, pH, color changes and sensory attributes. The addition of these grape by-products to the patties lowered pH values and significantly reduced in lightness, redness and yellowness compared with the control. However, the addition of grape seed and skin significantly improved the oxidative stability of raw chicken patties due to higher total phenolic content, grape seed being more effective than skin in this regard. The phenolic content of these samples remained stable even after cooking. The acceptability of the chicken meat in general was not affected by the addition of grape by-products. These results show that grape seed and grape skin could potentially be used as natural antioxidants in raw chicken patties and would be accepted by consumers.
Author:Antonia Yordanova Atanassova.
Clinic of Gastroenterology, University Hospital “St. Marina”, Medical University of Varna
Desmoid tumors are benign neoplasms, but are often unresectable because of their aggressive and local infiltration, compression of surrounding structures and massive involvement of adjacent vital structures. Our aim is to increase awareness of this condition so that clinicians will consider diagnosing it. This will facilitate prompt diagnosis and treatment. This is a case of a 43 year old woman with medical history of Berger`s disease, immunosuppressive therapy, a kidney transplant and sporadic mesenteric desmoid tumors appearing after solid organ transplantation. Eighteen months after the removal of the tumors, she was diagnosed with essential thrombocytosis. No evidences of recurrence after operation.
Author Name: Pesona Grace Lucksom
Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Sikkim Manipal Institute of Medical, Sikkim, India
For more information Please go through this URL: https://www.ommegaonline.org/article-details/Reaching-adolescents-through-Sex-education-where-do-we-stand/1078
Adolescence is a period between 10 - 19 years of age as described by World Health Organization(WHO). This is a period when there is rapid physical, psychological and sexual maturity. Sex education refers to a broad program designed to impart knowledge/training regarding values, attitudes and practices affecting family relationships. Sex education in children increases awareness about the biological and physiological changes occurring in their bodies and help them become comfortable with it and not conscious about it. Failure to understand that ‘sex education’ is different from ‘sex literature’ is the main obstacle for imparting knowledge among the youngsters. We feel proud of epics such as ‘Kamasutra’ but Kamasutra doesn’t talk about Human Immunodeficiency Virus / sexually transmitted infection (HIV/STI). In the absence of right guidance and information at this stage they are more likely to have multi-partner unprotected sex with high risk behavior groups. Sex education has been considered an important issue in the developed countries where it is incorporated as a part of school education however in many places such as Tanzania, Australia, India etc., it is considered a social taboo.
Author: Enrico Doria
Fruit and vegetables wastes not only have no commercial value, but also require expensive operations of removal and disposal, representing a significant cost for the manufacturers of plant products. However, this material may represent an important resource of commercially worth phyto-molecules endowed with various nutraceutical properties. In the present work, we have verified the possibility of using fruit and vegetable waste materials as a source of bioactive compounds. Several nutraceutical compounds of high economic interest were extracted and quantified from various waste plant materials deriving from the production phase (“first-gamma products”) or discarded during the preparation of fresh ready-to-cook or ready-to-eat packaged products (“fourth-gamma products”). Obtained results showed that, despite the precarious and uncontrolled conditions which plant wastes products are subjected, the levels of the examined bioactive compounds are present in relevant amount, also in the parts of the plant that are discarded during the preparation of the ready-to-eat/cook products.
Author: Tetsuo Nishikawa
Liraglutide (Victoza, Novo Nordisk Pharma Ltd.), a GLP-1 analogue preparation for diabetes mellitus has been reported to potently reduce the blood sugar level and decrease the body weight when injected once a day. As the risk of hypoglycemia is low, it has been used as an epoch-making drug in a rapidly increasing number of patients. In this study, we investigated the effects of liraglutide subcutaneously injected once a day in 48 patients with type 2 diabetes who had been treated at the outpatient clinic of the Diabetes Center in Yokohama Rosai hospital without admission. After 3 - month administration, the mean HbA1c value was significantly decreased (from 8.61 to 8.04%), and the mean body weight was also significantly reduced (from 71.0 to 69.2 kg). However, there were marked individual differences in the effects. We compared background factors between groups with and without improvement. The results showed that liraglutide was particularly effective in patients with a short duration of diabetes in whom endogenous insulin secretion, which was evaluated by examining fasting C-peptide with fasting sugar level, was well maintained. Furthermore, we examined the characteristics of eating behavior before and after administration using a questionnaire. In patients with a significant decrease in the blood sugar level, there was a marked improvement in the eating behavior pattern. Therefore, not only a decrease in the blood sugar level related to improved ability of endogenous insulin secretion but also the improvement of a patient